Author : Henttonen Kaisa, Hurmelinna-Laukkanen Pia & Ritala Paavo
References: Henttonen, K., Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, P. & Ritala, P. (2016) Managing the appropriability of R&D collaboration. R&D Management, 46(S1), 145-158.
Abstract: Research and development (R&D) collaboration with various types of external stakeholders is becoming increasingly important for firms pursuing innovation-related goals. However, collaborating with actors such as customers, suppliers, competitors, and research organisations involves risks related to knowledge leakage and the possible misappropriation of the created value. It is therefore logical to employ mechanisms that safeguard effective knowledge protection and innovation appropriability. In order to shed light on this issue, we conduct an empirical investigation of appropriability mechanisms in R&D collaboration based on a multi-industry sample from Finland. The results of the study provide novel evidence concerning the relationship between different appropriability mechanisms (intellectual property rights, contracts, labour legislation, human resource management practices, lead time, secrecy, and tacitness) and the firm's propensity to engage in R&D collaboration with various stakeholders.
References: Robert Van de Graaff, R. (2016), A multilevel study of structural resilience in interfirm collaboration: A network governance approach, Management Decision, 54(1), 248 - 266
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop the concept of a high performance alliance macro-culture as a multilevel construct reflective of resilient collaborative systems of exchange within strategic alliances and explores the distinct capabilities of this multilevel approach in predicting alliance outcomes.
Key words : Strategic alliances; Network governance.
Authors : Chiambaretto Paul, Gurau Calin, Le Roy Frédéric
References: Chiambaretto, P., Gurau, C., Le Roy, F. (2016), Coopetitive branding: Definition, typology, benefits and risks. Industrial Marketing Management, 57, 86-95
Abstract: Considering the increasing number of cobranding agreements taking place between competing firms, by highlighting its different forms, benefits and risks. To better understand this phenomenon, we develop a theoretical framework in which we explore different coopetitive branding situations. Based on the literature on coopetition and co-branding, we identify two key dimensions of coopetitive branding: the nature of the agreement (hybrid vs. symbolical) and the type of partners (direct vs. indirect competitors). These dimensions structure our proposed typology of four coopetitive branding situations. We further develop our theoretical framework by presenting and discussing the specific short-term (for the joint product) and long-term (for the parent firms) benefits and risks associated with each type of coopetitive branding, which are synthesized in four research propositions and illustrated through four case studies. The findings are discussed in direct relation to the relevant literature, resulting in a series of insights relevant for both the academic and managerial communities. The limitations of our study are properly acknowledged, providing us with the opportunity to develop a set of research directions for coopetitive branding agreements and their management.
Key words : Coopetitive branding; Coopetition; Co-branding; Typology; Benefits and risks.
References: Dorn, S., Schweiger, B., Albers, S. (in press), Levels, phases and themes of coopetition: A systematic literature review and research agenda. European Management Journal
Abstract: There is increasing interest among management scholars in “coopetition”, which is simultaneous cooperation and competition between at least two actors. The research interest in coopetition has grown remarkably in the past few years on a variety of levels of analysis, including the intra-firm level, the inter-firm level, and the network level. However, this research has emerged along tracks that are often disconnected, and involves different terminologies, theoretical lenses, and topics. Accordingly, scholars have called for consolidation and synthesis that makes it possible to develop a coherent understanding of the coopetition concept and that reconciles its inherent heterogeneity. In this study, the authors address this issue by means of a systematic literature review that gathers, analyzes, and synthesizes coopetition research. Current knowledge on coopetition is consolidated and presented across multiple levels of analysis along a phase model of coopetition. On the basis of this in-depth review, the authors synthesize a conceptual map that highlights five multilevel research areas: (1) the nature of the relationship, (2) governance and management, (3) the output of the relationship, (4) actor characteristics, and (5) environmental characteristics. The major research themes are identified for each of these areas, enabling the authors to suggest future research avenues.
Key words : Coopetition; Simultaneous cooperation and competition; Systematic literature review
References : Chiambaretto, P., Fernandez, A-S., (2016), The evolution of coopetitive and collaborative alliances in an alliance portfolio: The Air France case, Industrial Marketing Management, 57, 75-85
Abstract: This research studies the evolution of the composition of an alliance portfolio from a coopetition perspective. Building on resource dependence theory, market uncertainty appears to be a driver of alliance portfolio formation and evolution. Scholars have previously neglected key dimensions in analyzing the composition of firms’ alliance portfolios: the partner type (pure partner or competitor) and partner interactions (horizontal, vertical or mixed). We build on the coopetition and alliance portfolio literature to explore (1) the composition of an alliance portfolio and (2) its evolution over time. We illustrate our theoretical framework with a longitudinal single-case study of Air France’s alliance portfolio. First, we show that when market uncertainty is high, firms do not increase their reliance on collective strategies, but they do modify the composition of their portfolio. Second, to address high levels of market uncertainty, firms rely more on coopetitive alliances than on collaborative alliances. Third, firms use more horizontal than vertical interactions when market uncertainty is high.
Key words : Coopetitive alliances; Collaborative alliances; Alliance portfolio composition, Alliance portfolio evolution; Market uncertainty; Resource dependence theory
References : Yami, S., Chappert, H. & Mione, A. (2016), Strategic Relational Sequences: Microsoft's Coopetitive Game in the OOXML Standardization Process, M@n@gement, 18(5), 330-356
Abstract: The research question dealt with in this article is the following: can a leader use coopetition as its market control strategy? The study addresses how Microsoft managed relational modes in the situation of coopetition within the AFNOR Technical Committee to present the French position on its new standard OOXML draft. A dynamic perspective is considered. The results show that the leader can use coopetition as its market control strategy. They analyze the game of the leader along the standardization process that is characterized by a subtle management according to key sequences using relational modes (cooperation, competition and coopetition) that allow it to achieve its goals.
Key words : Coopetition; Relational modes; Control strategy; Microsoft; Standardization
Authors : Fernandez Anne-Sophie; Chiambaretto Paul
References : Fernandez A.-S. & Chiambaretto P. (2016). Managing tensions related to information in coopetition. Industrial Marketing Management, 53, 66–76.
Abstract: This study seeks to provide insights into the management of tensions related to information in coopetition. The literature on coopetition management recommends a separation principle, an integration principle or a combination of both. Focusing on tensions related to information in coopetition at the project level, we consider which principle is most appropriate. We theoretically discuss the control mechanisms used to address information criticality and information appropriability. In addition, we conduct an in-depth case study of a space project involving two competitors, Astrium and Thales Alenia Space. First, we describe the tensions related to information that arose in the context of this coopetitive project. In particular, financial and technical information presented dilemmas. Second, we explain how the coopetitors used formal control mechanisms to separate critical information from non-critical information. Specifically, information that was critical to the project's success was shared through a common information system specially designed for the project, whereas non-critical information was withheld from the partner. Third, because formal control mechanisms were insufficient to address critical information that was also appropriable, we show how project managers implemented informal control mechanisms. For example, project managers transformed appropriable information into non-appropriable information by aggregating data and withholding details such as calculation methods and cost structures. Our findings suggest that the management of tensions related to information in coopetitive projects requires a combination of formal control mechanisms (to manage information criticality) and informal control mechanisms (to manage information appropriability).
Key words : Coopetition; Coopetitive project; Tensions; Information; Control mechanism; Information criticality; Information appropriability
References : Klimas, P. (2016). Organizational culture and coopetition: An exploratory study of the features, models and role in the Polish Aviation Industry. Industrial Marketing Management, 53, 91-102.
Abstract: This study explores the importance of organizational culture for coopetition, and identifies the cultural profile of coopetitors operating within an innovation network. Although organizational culture's role in interorganizational collaboration is long established, coopetition settings have not received a similar attention. This exploratory study sheds light on the role of culture for coopetition, and scrutinizes organizational culture using the Competing Values Framework. Our findings suggest cultural differences between coopetitors versus non-coopetitors. Coopetitors display a cultural profile typical to hierarchy, as they describe themselves as more stable than flexible and more internally than externally focused in their strategic orientation. Interestingly the culture model typical for coopetitors, has been identified as the most distant for non-coopetitors, while the second typical model for non-coopetitors i.e. adhocracy has been identified as the most distant for coopetitors.
Key words : Coopetition; Organizational culture; Innovation networks; Aviation; Aerospace
Authors : Sanou Famara Hyacinthe; Le Roy Frédéric, Gnyawali Devi R.
References : Sanou H. Le Roy F., Gnyawali D. (2016), How Does Centrality in Coopetition Network Matter? Empirical Investigation in the Mobile Telephone Industry, British Journal of Management, 27(1), 143-160
Abstract: This research examines how a firm’s position in a coopetitive network (formed through cooperation among firms within an industry) influences the extent of the firm’s competitive aggressiveness and market performance. We collected data on competitive and cooperative actions of firms in the mobile telephone industry from 2000-2006 using structured content analysis of news reports. The results show that centrality of a firm in a coopetitive network contributes to the firm’s competitive aggressiveness through increased volume and variety of competitive actions. Further, the more central a firm is in the network, the greater is its market performance. Firms that undertake more volume and variety of competitive actions improve their market performance. Overall, these results show that being in a central position in a coopetition network is quite advantageous for the firm.
References : Chiambaretto P & Dumez H. (2016). Toward a typology of coopetition: a multilevel approach, International Studies of Management and Organisation, 46(3), 110-129
Abstract : This article studies the implications of a multilevel approach for the elaboration of a typology of coopetition. While an increasing amount of research is dedicated to the study of coopetition, a growing consensus has emerged on the nature of this phenomenon. Most articles studying coopetition focus on horizontal relationships between homogenous actors using a single level of analysis. However, several recent theoretical contributions have emphasized that coopetition is a more complex phenomenon and could imply vertical relations or heterogeneous actors. We contribute to this debate on the nature of coopetition by constructing a typology of coopetition. This typology is the result of an abductive process in which we mobilize the concept of “level.” By combining activity levels and organizational levels in the airline industry, we identify seven forms of coopetition. Finally, drawing from the multilevel typology, we discuss the implications of a multilevel analysis to gain a better understanding of coopetition.
Key words : Coopetition; Typology ; Multi-level analysis ; Abduction ; Airline industry
References : Le Roy, F. and Fernandez, A.-S. (2015), Managing Coopetitive Tensions at the Working-group Level: The Rise of the Coopetitive Project Team. British Journal of Management, 26(4), 671-688
Abstract : This study seeks to provide insights into the management of coopetitive tensions at the working-group level. We theoretically discuss the principles of separation and integration and a combination of both to manage coopetitive tensions at this level. An in-depth case study of a space programme conducted by two competitors − Astrium and Thales Alenia Space − was conducted. At the organizational level, according to the separation principle, we found that the coopetitors implemented a Coopetitive Project Team separated from the rest of their organization. At the individual level, according to the integration principle, we evidenced that project managers internalize the coopetitive paradox. At the working-group level, we revealed a new principle, that of co-management. The co-management principle, in the case of dyadic coopetition, relies on the implementation of a dual, equally shared governance structure and a dual management committee. To efficiently manage coopetitive tensions, firms are combining the separation principle at the organizational level, the co-management principle at the working-group level and the integration principle at the individual level.
Key words : Coopetition; Tensions ; Project team ; Co-management
References : Ratajczak-Mrozek, Milena (2015). The SME perspective on motives and success factors in cross-border mergers: The importance of network position, IMP Journal, 9 (2), 136 – 162
Abstract : The purpose of this paper is to address two research questions. First: what causes an small and medium enterprises (SME) to engage in a merger with a multinational group and thereby change its relationships and to start functioning in a hierarchical structure which may be viewed as being the integration of a weaker entity by a stronger and bigger one? And second: what causes the successful continuation of a cross-border merger project from the perspective of an SME? The concept of the network position is adopted to undertake a longitudinal study of an IT company from Poland.From the perspective of the SME, its own perceived important network position resulting from the resources it possesses, the ability to decide how they are utilised, as well as relationships strongly supported by trust and a good atmosphere are key motives and success factors for the merger. By adapting the IMP research perspective and the concept of network position to the analysis of mergers the additional aspects of the merger process which are usually not raised in relevant traditional mergers and acquisitions literature are revealed. A merger is not just the sourcing of resources, but also interdependencies and taking joint decisions with regard to them; not just economic aspects, but also social aspects of relationships (trust and atmosphere); not just the sharing of resources between merged entities, but also the constant influence of other relationships and interactions on these resources.
Key words : Internationalization; Acquisitions and mergers; Small- and medium-sized enterprises; Cross-border merger; Network picture; Network position
References : Klimas P., Twaróg S. (2015), Inter-organizational Proximity in the Context of Logistics – Research Challenges, LogForum, 11 (1), 109-117
Abstract: One of major areas of modern research econnected with management issues covers interorganizational networks (including supply chains) and cooperation processes aimed at improvement of the effectiveness of their performance to be found in such networks. The logistics is the main factor responsible for effectiveness of the supply chain. A possible and a quite new direction of research in the area of the performance of processes of the interorganizational cooperation is the proximity hypothesis that is considered in five dimensions (geographical, organizational, social, cognitive, and institutional). However, according to many authors, there is a lack of research on supply chains conducted from the logistics point of view. The proximity hypothesis in this area of research can be seen as a kind of novum. Therefore, this paper presents the proximity concept from the perspective of the management science, the overview of prior research covering the inter-organizational proximity with supply chain from the logistics point of view as well as the possible future directions of the empirical efforts. The aim of this paper is to present previous theoretical and empirical results of research covering interorganizational proximity in logistics and to show current and up-to-date research challenges in this area. The method of the critical analysis of literature is used to realize the goal constructed this way. Knowledge about the influence of the inter-organizational proximity on the performance of supply chains is rather limited, and the research conducted so far, is rather fragmentary and not free of limitations of the conceptual and methodological nature. Additional rationales for further research in this area include knowledge and cognitive gaps identified in this paper. According to authors the aim of future empirical research should be as follows: (1) unification and update of used conceptual and methodological approaches in research on the proximity in supply chains, (2) testing of theoretical hypotheses with attention paid to importance of the proximity for supply chains taking into account the significant heterogeneity of this form of inter-organizational cooperation, and (3) recognizing the role of the interorganizational proximity for the practice of supply chain management and for the realization of the integration function of the logistics.
Key words : Inter-organizational proximity; Supply chain; Logistics.
References : Chiambaretto P (2015). Resource dependence and power-balancing operations in alliances: The role of market redefinition strategies, M@n@gement, 18(3), 205-223.
Abstract : This article studies power imbalances in alliances. More precisely, we seek to understand how – and under what circumstances – firms can leverage market redefinition strategies to change the structure of their markets and to reduce the bargaining power of actual or potential partners. Based on resource dependence theory, our analysis examines the causes of disproportionate power in alliances and describes various power-balancing operations that can be implemented to reduce dependence. In previous research, the presence of alternative sources that might reduce resource dependence has been given exogenously, and the set of power-balancing operations has been rather limited. Based on the alliance literature, the bargaining power literature and the market redefinition literature, we elaborate a theoretical framework to study the extent to which firms can leverage market redefinition strategies to shape the structure of their markets, in general, and reduce the bargaining power of partners, in particular. We illustrate our theoretical framework by means of multiple case studies and discuss our conclusions. Focusing on air-rail intermodal strategies, we emphasise that firms can proactively redesign their market boundaries to find new partners. These market redefinition strategies reduce dependence on powerful partners in the traditional market and offer new strategic partnership options for firms. In addition, we note that processes can be implemented to increase the quality offered by these new substitutes. Finally, we elucidate several theoretical and managerial implications regarding the role of market redefinition strategies in alliance development.
Key words : Resource dependence theory; Power imbalance; Market redefinition strategies; Alliances; Airlines ; Air-rail intermodality
References : Klimas, P. (2015), Organisational innovativeness: its level, building blocks and relationships with interorganisational cooperation inside innovation networks, Int. J. Business Environment, 7(4), 373–395
Abstract: The significance of innovativeness for development and competitive advantage has been recognised for decades. The recent literature has acknowledged organisational innovativeness as a complex and
multidimensional construct. Indeed, there have been some conceptual and methodological contributions to the structure, evaluation and measurement of multidimensionally-perceived organisational innovativeness. However, so far, there has been little empirical research on these issues. Furthermore, the results of prior studies remain ambiguous. Thus, this research focuses on organisational innovativeness and introduces its multidimensional conceptualisation into Polish aviation industry and innovation networks. The findings suggest that in case of aviation companies organisational innovativeness is a two-dimensional construct consisting of product and people innovativeness. Additionally, this paper aim at presentation of research results about potential interdependencies between organisational innovativeness and intra-network cooperation. The empirical evidence indicates that organisational innovativeness and its particular dimensions are positively related to cooperation inside innovation networks.
Key words : Organisational innovativeness; Cooperation; Innovation networks; Aviation industry
Authors : Fernandez Anne-Sophie ; Le Roy Frédéric ; Gnyawali Devi
Références :Fernandez, A.-S., Le Roy, F., & Gnyawali, D. R. (2014). Sources and Management of Tension in Co-opetition Case Evidence from Telecommunications Satellites Manufacturing in Europe. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(2), 222–235.
Abstract : Co-opetition is filled with tension due to inherent contradictory and opposing forces. In this research, we develop a multi-level conceptual framework that helps to understand key drivers of tension in co-opetition and key approaches to managing the tension. We combine literature-based conceptual arguments and insights from in-depth study of one exemplar case of co-opetition between Astrium (EADS group) and Thales Alenia Space (Thales group) within the sector of telecommunications satellites manufacturing in Europe. Our findings highlight multiple sources of co-opetitive tension at different levels. Further, our research shows that a mixed organization based on both separation and integration of competition and cooperation is helpful to understand and effectively manage tension in co-opetition. This paper offers case-based rich insights on the sources and management of tension and has important implications for the design and conduct of future empirical research.
Key words : Co-opetition; Tension; Separation; Integration; Space industry
References : Klimas P. (2014), Multifaceted nature of coopetition inside an aviation supply chain – the case of the Aviation Valley, Journal of Economics and Management, 17, 95-119
Abstract: In recent years the concept of coopetition becomes more and more popular in both economy and literature. The growing interest in coopetition strategies, their characteristics and adaptation stems from the fact that it may be perceived as a significant factor for leveraging effectiveness and performance of modern organizations. Drawn from existing literature this paper attempts to present the character of coopetition inside the aviation supply chain. By identifying different levels, scopes and fields of both cooperation and competition four types of coopetition were identified. In the light of the obtained results particular members of considered supply chain may be characterized by: national coopetition, global coopetition, hybrid coopetition and multidimensional coopetition. The identified types of coopetition are varied in terms of: (1) the market scope of coopetition, (2) types organizations engaged (i.e. subsidiaries/parent organizations), (3) stages of supply chain maintaining coopetitive relationships, and (4) complexity and directedness of coopetition.
Key words : Coopetition; Cooperation; Competition; Networks; Supply chain; Aviation; Case study
References : Lehiany B. & Chiambaretto P. (2014). ASMA : Un dispositif d’Analyse Séquentielle et Multidimensionnelle des Alliances, Management International, 18, 85-105
Abstract : Analyzing the competitive dynamics of strategic alliances requires the development of original specific qualitative research tools. We propose a qualitative method for longitudinal analysis which integrates the three traditional dimensions of strategy – the market, market structures and the non-market environment – plus an additional dimension specific to alliances : inter-market relationships. We explain how to use the SMAA – Sequential and Multidimensional Analysis of Alliances – before applying it to the European railway sector. Compared to the traditional qualitative methods, the SMAA allows highlighting the dynamics of alliance portfolio effects resulting from the multiplication of points of contact between partners and competitors.
References: Ritala, P. & Tidström, A. (2014) Untangling the value-creation and value-appropriation elements of coopetition strategy: A longitudinal analysis on the firm and relational levels. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 30(4), 498-515.
Abstract: Collaboration among competing firms (i.e., coopetition) highlights the co-existence of value creation and appropriation due to the simultaneity of competition and collaboration in the relationship. As a consequence, there may be firm- and relationship-level differences in a coopetition strategy in terms of how the partners create and realize value. However, the research on this issue is still scarce, on both the theoretical and the empirical levels. In order to narrow this gap, this study develops a conceptual framework of value creation and appropriation in
coopetition, and analyzes this in light of an exploratory longitudinal case study of the relationships and interactions of four Finnish manufacturing firms. The results show that relational- and
firm-level coopetition strategies differ notably in terms of value-creation and -appropriation objectives, and that they evolve over time. There are also evident differences in firm-specific strategies, illustrating the multifaceted nature of the managerial challenges inherent in coopetitive networks.
Key words: Coopetition; Co-opetition; Value creation; Value appropriation; Strategy; Relationship; Network
References: Ritala, P., Golnam, A. & Wegmann, A. (2014) Coopetition-based business models: The case of Amazon.com. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(2), 236–249.
Abstract: Coopetition (collaboration between competing firms) is a phenomenon that has recently captured a great deal of attention due to its increasing relevance to business practice. However, current research on coopetition is still short on explaining how the potential advantages of coopetition can be realized over time as part of an individual firm's business model. In order to gain insights into this, we conduct a longitudinal, in-depth case study on the coopetition-based business models of Amazon.com. We find evidence of three distinct coopetition-based business models: (1) Amazon Marketplace, (2) Amazon Services and Web Services, and (3) the collaboration between Apple and Amazon on digital text platforms. We conclude by forwarding several propositions on how value can be created and captured by involving competitors in a firm's business model. As a whole, the results contribute to the current understanding of how firms – as well as their stakeholders – can better benefit from coopetition.
Key words: Coopetition; Collaboration; Competition; Business Model; Amazon.com; Case study
Références :Benmeziane K., Mione A. (2014), Standardization strategies and their impact on partners’relationships in Complex Product and Systems: cases in the space sector. International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research (IJITSR), 12(2), 21-37.
Abstract : In this contribution, the authors investigate the way partners involved in Complex Products and Systems (CoPS) development manage local standards. In particular, this paper analyses how this management impacts the relations between partners through their roles of leader and complementor within platforms. The results are based on a qualitative case study in the launch vehicle segment of the space sector, especially the development of the Ariane 5 and Vega European space launchers. First, the authors find that standards management reveals the firm’s position in a platform as a leader or a complementor. Second, it is shown that standards can be a way for complementors to build new system skills by collaborating with platform leaders. Along with skill building, they allow a firm to challenge the dominant position of the platform leader. Third, the authors show that firms use local standards combined with alliance strategies to manage competitive tensions. Then, the paper discusses literature on standards in CoPS and on leader and complementor’s positions within platforms.
Key words : Complex Products and Systems (CoPs); Platforms; Ecosystem; Standards; Leader/complementor strategies
References : Yami S & Nemeh A. (2014). Organizing coopetition for innovation: The case of wireless telecommunication sector in Europe. Industrial Marketing Management 43(2), 250–260.
Abstract : Prior research highlighted the prevalence of coopetition as a strategy for innovation in high-tech industries for several reasons but the link between forms of coopetition and innovation is still understudied. In order to fill this gap in the literature, this study attempts to answer the following question: which form of coopetition favors which type of innovation? The results of an embedded case study approach of five Celtic-Plus projects (European Eureka Program) in the wireless telecommunication sector show that two forms of coopetition exist: multiple and dyadic. While multiple coopetition is successfully pursued for radical innovation, dyadic coopetition is more suitable for incremental innovation. Different innovation objectives lead to different levels of value creation/appropriation tensions between coopetitors. In order for competitors to pursue radical or incremental innovation successfully, different levels of social capital related to different choices of partners are needed. The role of social capital levels as a moderating factor between value creation/appropriation tensions and innovation type is discussed in detail. The study proposes a conceptual model that links coopetition strategy motives to the types of coopetition and their results in terms of radical or incremental innovation. Finally, a framework that helps firms to balance between multiple/dyadic–vertical/horizontal collaboration according to the levels of value creation/appropriation tensions and social capital is proposed.
Key words : Coopetition; Innovation; Value creation/appropriation; Social capital
Authors : Pellegrin-Boucher Estelle; Le Roy Frédéric; Gurau Calin
References : Pellegrin-Boucher E., Le Roy F. & Gurau C. (2013). Coopetitive strategies in the ICT sector: typology and stability, Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 25(1), 71-89
Abstract : The paradoxical nature of coopetition is determined by a combination of collaboration and competition. Coopetition is a relational mode frequently applied by information and communications technologty (ICT) firms. Using a qualitative approach, this study investigates the evolution of inter-firms coopetitive agreements in the enterprise resource planning (ERP) industry, and on the basis of this data, attempts to discuss coopetition typology and stability in this specific market context. The findings indicate the existence of two main types of coopetitive agreements, coopetitive projects with (i) vertical or (ii) horizontal cooperation between the competing partners. These two coopetition types have different characteristics in terms of purpose, dynamics and stability, presenting a specific balance between competitive tensions and collaboration benefits. The study concludes with a summary of the main findings and with practical propositions directed towards alliance managers.
Key words : Coopetitive relations; Coopetition typology and stability; Industry case; ERP industry
Authors : Ritala Paavo; Agouridas Vassilis, Assimakopoulos Dimitris; Gies Otto
References: Ritala, P., Agouridas, V., Assimakopoulos, D. & Gies, O. (2013) Value creation and capture mechanisms in innovation ecosystems – A comparative case study. International Journal of Technology Management, 63(3/4), 244-267.
Abstract: This study focuses on value creation and capture in innovation ecosystems. It presents and discusses the findings from a qualitative, comparative case study on two European-led innovation ecosystems from the ICT and aerospace and defence sectors. The purpose of the research is to explore the tangible and intangible mechanisms related to how leading firms may facilitate value creation and capture in this context. In particular, we focus on mechanisms related to the building phase to help attract and gather relevant stakeholders, and on the management phase to help maintain and realise the business goals of all ecosystem participants. We also discuss the differences between the case industries concerning the effectiveness and usage of such
mechanisms. Overall, the research findings provide new evidence on the facilitating initiatives, underlying mechanisms and structures that are related to the leading firms’ orchestration of innovation ecosystems.
Key words:Innovation ecosystem; Value creation; Value capture; ICT sector; aerospace and defence sector; Case study
Références :Mione A., Leroy M. (2013), Décisions stratégiques dans la rivalité entre standards de qualité : le cas de la certification forestière. Management International, 17(2), 84-104.
Abstract : Cette contribution examine les relations concurrentielles entre organisations de standardisation. Elle présente le cas de la gestion durable des forêts. Une certification volontaire est mise en place pour protéger les forêts menacées au niveau mondial, mais le recours aux normes volontaires, en lieu et place de la règlementation, produit des effets inattendus. En particulier, les organisations de standardisation doivent gérer l’émergence de standards rivaux et se trouvent engagées dans des relations concurrentielles complexes. Puisant dans les apports des spécialistes du travail institutionnel et des interactions concurrentielles, nous montrons comment cette bataille se joue sur le terrain de la recherche de légitimité et par des actions concurrentielles qu’elles ont du mal à assumer.
Key words : Dynamique concurrentielle; Stratégies relationnelles; Guerre de standards; Gestion durable des forêts; Certification forestière.